e4e Week 3

Breaking the silence: contesting violence and girls’ education

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Time

Discussion April 26th – 30th
Keynote 26 April 2010, 09:00 UTC (view time across timezones)
View Keynote Recording
Moderators Victorine Djitrinou and Akanksha Marphatia

Brief

Giving substance to gender equality also means tackling violence against girls and women; a key element, often unremarked upon and taken for granted, that perpetuates non-participation in school and the fulfilment of education aspirations. Gender based violence in and around school is starting to be documented with particular, but different consequences for girls and boys. Research indicates the complex relationships associated with gender identities and access to power and esteem this entails. In addition these issues are often cloaked in shame and a processes of silencing ensues which makes the question of policy and practice particularly delicate. Violence in, on the way to, or associated with school is emerging as an important reason why girls do not attend. However, attending and completing school or membership of an adult education group may give girls and women particular resources to challenge gender based violence.

Resources

Discussion Papers

Lang Title Authors
1. EN Girls at the heart: a review of girls’ participation initiatives to combat violence in school (abstract) Asmara Figue, Akanksha A. Marphatia, Victorine Djitrinou, Jenny Parkes
2. EN Schools Out: Core Strategies for Human Rights Learning during Armed Conflict Elaine Halsall

Dakar Abstracts

The following abstracts report on papers to be presented in Dakar from 17-20 May 2010:

  Lang Title Authors
1. EN Gender security, gendered violence and social justice: the rights of protection through education of urban youth in Sub-Saharan African cities Madeleine Arnot, Georgina Oduro, Sharlene Swartz, Leslie Casely-Hayford, Fatuma Chege, Paul Wainaina
2. EN Too often in silence: A report on Gender Based Violence in Schools in West and Central Africa Catherine Flagothier, Vanya Berrouet, Stefanie Conrad, Victorine Kemonou Djitrinou, Soumahoro Gbato
3. EN Turning the PAGE: working collaboratively to reduce GBV in Malawi schools Anderson Kumpolota, Victoria Machakaire and Kaia Ambrose
4. EN A critical analysis of gender violence and inequality in and around schools in South Africa in the age of Aids: Progress or retreat? Relebohile Moletsane, Claudia Mitchell and Thandi Lewin
5. EN Girls Education and Violence: Reflections on the first decade of the twenty-first century Jenny Parkes, Fatuma Chege
6. EN Contested development? Women’s economic empowerment and intimate partner violence in urban and rural Tanzania Seema Vyas, Jessie Mbwambo, Charlotte Watts

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59 Responses to “e4e Week 3”

  1. lraftree says:

    Working closely with girls, mothers and grandmothers as well as the broader community is key. For example, this project works with local organizations and local women to educate and dialog around female genital cutting.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=frE4ghFYeoQ

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  3. khadijatou says:

    bonsoir, merci pour l'invitation.
    je pense qu'il faut d'abord s'attaquer aux racines du mal qui sont à chercher dans nos coutumes et autres croyances qui encouragent la correction par le bâton. ensuite, dénoncer la violence sournoise dont les petites filles font l'objet au sein même de leur famille et qui se manifeste par les brimades, les vexations, l'humiliation et la censure sur ses droits les plus élémentaires comme jouer par exemple. enfin , une sensibilisation permanente par le biais des médias, des associations et autres relais.
    il ne faudrait pas non plus attendre des états une politique allant dans ce sens . l'idéal serait de coopérer avec des structures existantes et œuvrant dans ce sens pour développer des stratégies et mécanismes de sensibilisation à l'endroit des filles, se rapprocher des femmes impliquées dans les Ape, organiser des journées de mobilisation dans les établissements scolaires et donner aux filles les moyens de dénoncer leur bourreaux par la création d'un numéro vert
    unir tous les efforts pour combattre ce fléau ,c'est faire deux pas vers le développement.

  4. Amina Issa says:

    I agree with WorlEd: for comabting violence of girls is bringing toguether varied stakeholdrs. apart of working with civil society organization, the parents, teacher and the communities, we have to work closly to the government. in Mozambique for eg: their are very openly to discuss about gender balance, violence. rights, etc. As civil society we have to organize our selfs so that we can use this space efectivaly to ensure that the Governement dont continue using the outdadted laws wich are not in tandem with the provisions of CEDAW , by improving our institutional capacities.

  5. La violence faite aux filles en milieu scolaire a des conséquences néfastes sur leur avenir. Elle les pousse à abandonner l’école, particulièrement les filles victimes de harcèlement sexuel, de viol, de raillerie
    Nous avons une responsabilité collective, et nous avons besoin d’une approche concertée, coordonnée et harmonisée pour réussir la lutte contre la VBG/MS.
    Chaque individu, chaque structure d’éducation, chaque responsable politique, administratif, judiciaire, chaque autorité coutumière et/ou religieuse, chaque organisation ou association oeuvrant pour le bien être de nos systèmes éducatifs, devrait se poser les questions suivantes et travailler à leur trouver des réponses:
    - Comment faire émerger la question de la VBG/MS dans la conscience collective et les politiques nationales ?
    - Quelle est notre responsabilité dans la persistance et l’aggravation du phénomène ?
    - Quelle peut être notre partition dans la lutte contre ce mal ?
    - Comment sécuriser l’environnement scolaire pour une meilleure protection et éducation de nos filles ?

  6. E-PTF et ONG
    •soutenir toute les initiatives concourant à la lutte contre les VBG/MS , tant au niveau central qu’à la base.
    F-ELEVES
    •- s’informer sur les règles et procédures de dénonciation, de rapportage et les recours éventuels existants ;
    •- dénoncer l’acte incriminé auprès de vos parents, de l’administration de l’établissement, de l’APE / AME de l’établissement …) ;
    •- si nécessaire formuler et engager une plainte auprès des institutions judiciaires, avec l’aide des parents / APE / AME… ;
    •- il est conseillé de procéder aux dénonciations, plaintes par écrit, et de toujours garder copie de votre écrit.

  7. D-ADMINISTRATION SCOLAIRE, ENCADREURS PEDAGOGIQUES, SYNDICATSS D’ENSEIGNANTS, PARENTS ET ELEVES, ORGANISATION DE LA SOCIETE CIVILE
    •mettre en œuvre des politiques de lutte contre la VBG/MS ;
    •mettre en place des mécanismes de rapportage sur les cas de VBG/MS survenus ;
    •faciliter la punition des auteurs d’actes de VBG/MS ;
    •créer des clubs de surveillance au sein et aux alentours des écoles ;
    •procéder à la relecture critique des textes officiels régissant la vie scolaire en y intégrant des dispositions claires rendant
    délictueux la VBG/MS
    •mettre en place des mécanismes permettant aux victimes de dénoncer les abus en toute sécurité ;
    •former les filles à l’autodéfense (comment gérer les actes de violence dont elles sont victimes) ;
    •appliquer le principe de latrines séparées (filles / garçons) ;
    • former les enseignant(e)s à l’approche genre dans l’éducation.

    • KinéFatim DIOP says:

      Il me semble que nous avons tous compris que pour éradiquer les cas de violences faites aux filles en milieu scolaire, il faut que tous les acteurs soient impliqués (parents, enfants, enseignants, ONG, médias, politiques, etc.). Si dans beaucoup de pays, des lois existent pour punir, ou bannir du corps professoral, les agresseurs sexuels, elles sont souvent pas appliquées. De plus, la questions de VFMS ne font pas l'objet d'une politique spécifique dans nos états respectifs. Il est donc urgent de pousser la question dans l'agenda politique/parlementaire. Pour ma part, il me semble la question de la formation des jeunes reste est centrale pour donner les outils nécessaires pour se défendre, mais aussi dénoncer les actes de violences. Les enseignants et les parents doivent être formés et sensibilisés pour comprendre que la violence est un véritable obstacle au succès scolaire des filles.
      La définition de la violence est également primordiale pour approcher le sujet car beaucoup limite la violence à la violence physique/ sexuelle. Or, la violence est souvent psychique, verbale, morale.

  8. RESPONSABILITES DES DIFFERENTS ACTEURS

    A- AU NIVEAU POLITIQUE / GOUVERNEMENT
    •mettre en œuvre une politique nationale de lutte contre la VBG/MS ;
    •renforcer les capacités des acteurs / actrices en matière de prévention et de lutte contre les VBG/MS ;
    •édicter des directives claires auxquelles les établissements et institutions d’éducation devraient se référer.

    B- LEGISLATIF
    •adopter une loi spécifique pour la protection des filles en milieu scolaire et la répression des violences qui leur sont faites.

    C-JUDICIAIRE
    - Prévention (police administrative) ;
    - Répression (police judiciaire) ;
    •réprimer des actes de VBG/MS ;
    •codifier les différents actes répréhensibles en matière de VBG/MS et les peines encourues par les contrevenant(e)s.

  9. QUELS PARTENAIRES IMPLIQUES, QUELS ROLES POUR LES ENSEIGNANT(E)S ET LES SYNDICATS D’ENSEIGNANT(E)S ?

    Il nous apparaît indispensable de ratisser large et d’impliquer toutes les parties prenantes dans ce combat, en s’appuyant sur des instruments internationaux comme, la Déclaration universelle de Droits de l’Homme, la Convention sur les Droits des enfants la Charte Africaine des Doits de l’Homme, la Convention sur l’élimination de toutes les formes de discrimination à l’égard des femmes etc. et bien sûr aussi sur certaines dispositions d’instruments régionaux et nationaux.

  10. Une question aussi cruciale ne peut être abordée avec succès qu’à travers la participation de toutes les parties prenantes.Une expérience en cours à l’initiative de l’Association d’Appui et d’Eveil Pugsada (ADEP), basée au Burkina Faso, mérite d’être partagée.
    Une étude qu'elle a menée 2008 sur «Le Harcèlement sexuel des Filles en Milieu Scolaire au Burkina Faso» a confirmé la persistance du phénomène et son caractère pernicieux. L’ADEP a initié la mise en place d’un groupe de plaidoyer en vue de l’adoption d’un texte de loi réprimant les violence basées sur le genre en milieu scolaire, notamment le harcèlement sexuel. Le groupe de plaidoyer est à pied d’œuvre et regroupe une dizaine d’associations et d’institutions partenaires dont le CIEFFA.
    Il serait tout indiqué que dans le cadre des présents échanges, d’autres expériences en cours ou qui ont porté fruit puissent être partagées.

  11. But many countries also still penalize pregnant girls by forcing them to drop out of school. This is of great worry. I also remember vehement community resistence in one country when a teacher was dismissed from school for having impregnated a student. Without job, the teacher had no income to support the girl and her child. Legal frameworks are necessary and important, but they need to be just, take girls' best interest into consideration. And most of all they need to be supported by broader measures to change attitudes and behaviors which see sexual relationships between teachers and as normal or justified.

  12. mme Diop says:

    bonjour, il y'a ici des réflexions très pertinentes sur les violences en milieu scolaire, mais comme l'ont souligné certains, c'est un fléau qui interpèle tout le monde, les gouvernants les syndicalistes enseignants, les politiques, les parents. La menace existe dans les maisons, dans la rue mais et surtout dans les écoles où le plus souvent , c'est l'enseignant ou le personnel de vie qui sont les auteurs de cette violence.
    Mais cette force de mobilisation qui existe chez les femmes doit être utilisée pour combattre ce fléau.

  13. IRENE KADO says:

    I have grown up in a rural area in kenya where girls drop out of school at tender ages, because they lack fees or are forced to stay at home doing house chores, while their other male siblings go to school, parents here even prefer to educate the boy child first and later subject to availability of resources they educate the child. this has led to low self esteem and most of the girls have taken off to get married at tender ages.

    They lead miserable lives because they get married to men who beat them up and despise them because they are not educated. i think the issue of adult education should be emphasized because, recently when i went visiting I attended a meeting with some of them, they all pointed at me to lead because they cant speak in English. I felt so bad and I am planning on starting a Community Based organization to empower women, giving them basic English,Kiswahili and mathematical skills through informal adult classes.
    i wish they would all attend, to boost their self esteem and enhance their participation in social and nation building activities.

  14. c'est vrai que dans la mise en place de ce genre de mécanismes – si cela arrive- on oublie souvent que la violence a l'école est le reflet de la société dans la quelle nous vivons et que tout approche devrait intégrée afin que tous les secteurs soient touchés. Peut être que si les acteurs de la société pourrait se retrouver autour des mécanismes existants et coordonner des action en vue de leur amélioration? On peut rêver n'est ce pas?
    Actionaid has started a media survey on violence against girls in newspaper in 18 countries in Africa region since July 2009. Most of the perpetrators are from the direct neybourghood of the girls. We cannot stop violence at school without adressing the issue globally

    • Ishrat Khan Barsha says:

      I do agree with Victorine. This campaign should include the countries of ASIA region too, because of diverse community, religion, social strata and ethnicity. More of it, most of the LDC (least developed countries) lie between ASIA. Religion, cultural norms, values, superstitions highly prevail in these area. We can initiate a worldwide campaign from ActionAid including Women's Rights and Education theme to minimize violence against girls at school and on way to school.

  15. Elaine Halsall says:

    I agree with you, my work with girls in a war zone, has found that an approach that is holistic and encompasses all sectors is needed when we are looking at either access to education and for me in particular access to human rights learning. By all sectors I include duty bearers (e.g. those in positions of power), agencies of accountability (e.g. .UN) and for me most especially we must include the rights holders themselves (e.g. the girls).
    I think we often (unintentionally) perpetuate the compliance of girls in our education processes by not actively including them as resources of knowledge. I found that if we look to models that allow girls to integrate their experiences, explore their values and attitudes, we promote a democratic culture; and thus encourage brainstorming as ways for girls to be involved in civil and political society, to take action to defend human rights and to prevent future human rights violations. As Christine Akello, a young women from northern Uganda said, “it is important that we speak with children and not for them…they should not just be the result takers, but also seen as the result makers.”

    • Angela Melchiorre says:

      I agree that this holistic approach should be informed by the legal and non-legal dimension of human rights. Introducing, enacting and popularising laws are key steps (as confirmed by Alphonsine), but they remain limited if they only focus on remedies to violations. Human rights have the power to affect change at the substantial, structural and societal level, but for the law to do so, the social values and norms that shape legal institutions have to be directly targeted, too. And here formal and non-formal human rights education is very powerful, as the examples here show. Even more so for those programmes that go beyond awareness-raising and engage not only girls and women but also men (as fathers, teachers, political, religious and cultural leaders…) in re-thinking power, violence and gender hierarchies. I would be interested in hearing about such examples, too.

  16. @WorldEd says:

    A best practice for combating violence against girls or exploitation of girls is bringing together varied stakeholders—e.g. school committees (as mentioned by Florence above), local NGOs, families & other community members—to share information, to take responsibility for running anti-violence campaigns, to ensure children are safe at school and on the passage to and from school, and to come together as a united body against violence, trafficking, forced labor, etc.

    World Education's OPTIONS Program in Cambodia focused efforts on using education to address sexual exploitation of youth. OPTIONS worked to educate children at risk, especially girls, in formal and non-formal education settings to improve their life skills and ability to negotiate personal and career options. OPTIONS partnered with community networks ( PTAs and school community groups that included teachers, parents, village leaders and girls themselves) to identify and reduce the number of girls who fall victim to trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation. Even the girls themselves would head a community meeting every year and speak about what they learned, how they were empowered, how they stopped traffickers etc.

  17. To combat school based gender-violence, a wholistic and multi sectoral approach should be taken. i.e. although it is the responsibility of the State to protect its citizenry, CSOs and other stakeholders such as the Teachers Unions need to get out of their usual core mandates i.e. of teacher welfare but look at the need to ensure Education for All in a violence free enviroment.

    More efforts should be also geared towards building capacity of communities/ school Committees to promote child protection and empowering children and girls on Child rights, Education as a basic right as well as other rights. School environment should also be engendered to take care of the learners needs. It is only through this all inclusive approach can there be substantial gains in ending school based gender-violence.

    • Shupe M. says:

      I agree with Florence on empowering girls on Child rights… Most initiatives aimed at addressing violence against girls are focused on providing a response to the issue, while little is done to focus on empowering girls through investing in them on prevention. In Zambia, a coalition (TAAAC Coalition) of which I am the Coordinator, has been formed by NGOs to address the prevention of sexual violence against adolescent girls from a multi-sectoral perspective; through law reform, improved legal and health services, and awareness raising about rights and remedies, among others. The Coalition, with funding from UN Trust Fund and help from Equality Now and Population Council is addressing the issue of investing in the building of the girls’ social, economic, and health assets that are key in the prevention of violence against girls.
      In ensuring that schools are a safe environment for girls, the coalition will also address this issue by engaging with the Ministry of Education on creating guidelines/Teacher Code of Conduct, aimed at preventing sexual violence against girls within the school system and facilitating reporting of such violations when they do take place. This can be thorny especially in schools whose staff is male dominated. Any ideas on how other organisations have addressed issues of school based programs on prevention of sexual violence against girls?

  18. Welcome to the edialogue on gender-based violence in education.
    Bienvenue a la discussion de cette semaine, qui est cerne sur la violence

    Veuillez-bien partager vos reflexions
    Please share your thoughts!

  19. Tim says:

    Q5
    What 10 points would you include on a ‘people’s charter’ against gender based-violence?
    Quels sont les 10 points que vous mettriez dans une «charte du peuple» contre la violence basée sur le sexe?

  20. Tim says:

    Q4
    Can you share examples of child-participation, particularly girls? At the national and international level in particular?
    Do you have examples of participation by other actors – parents, teachers, etc.
    - What was the goal of the activity, outcome
    - How do you address issues of protection? (Figue et al.)
    - Challenges?

    Pouvez-vous donner des exemples de participation des enfants, en particulier des filles? Et en particulier au niveau national et international?
    Avez-vous des exemples de la participation d’autres acteurs – parents, enseignants, etc.
    - Quels étaient l'objectif et les résultats de l'activité
    - Comment traitez-vous les questions de protection? (Figue et al.)
    - Quels sont les défis lies a la participation des enfants?

    • In Tanzania, Plan supported a child-led media project that transmitted 26 video magazines on TvT, the national television broadcaster in the country. The project aimed to mitigate harassment of school children by teachers, parents and other adults. The project proved to be an eye-opener for school and local authorities but especially for the 30,000 individuals reached directly by community screenings. The project aimed to give a voice to children to advocate for their rights in 25 schools, in particular those aspects related to violence.

      Children are now involved in the decision-making process of some schools and communities. For example, some districts have added more primary teachers to their schools after receiving requests from children.

      • Angela Melchiorre says:

        This is very interesting, Armelle, and made me reflect about the capacity of children to be active participants in advocacy strategies. I’m curious to know more about the content of this media project, as I imagine it must have been quite difficult for children to publicly voice concerns about something so sensitive and personal as violence and harassment. Which leads me to another point concerning issues of protection and challenges: are there examples of independent and anonymous monitoring/reporting mechanisms that are freely and safely accessible to children who suffered from violence and abuse in and around school?

      • victorine Djitrinou says:

        Bonjour Armelle, I am really interested in this project. This kind of project by children themselves are powerful. Is there anyway we can access the video? I am coming to Tanzania next week, Great if we can catch up, share share best practices and explore collaboration possibilities
        merci

        • IRENE KADO says:

          Hi there Victorine, its really true, children oriented project gives the children a chance to express themselves better and work with ideas that are true to them , unlike when the adult ideas from an adults perspective are imposed on them. interesting project would like to know how it works.

    • Plan in West Africa has a broad programme to stop violence at school by supporting children and youth led advocacy efforts. (pls. see my comments in week 1). Ensuring children's protection in their efforts is a critical task for us. While most of the youth groups chose collaborative strategies, in one country a partnering girls group chose to denounce a teacher who had sexually abused girls on the radio. The teacher was removed from the community (but not dismissed) as a result of their efforts. While the strategy chosen by the group was effective, it was also risky and we had to support the group with negotiation work to mitigate potential consquences of their action. This example illustrates the risks of youth led advocacy with, while at the same time demonstrating that there is a space for activism in eradicating school violence against girls. We are including routinely risk analysis in our youth group trainings, but we have to be conscious and ready for the fact that we don't own the groups agenda and that they might decide to chose risky tactics to achieve their goals.

  21. Tim says:

    Q3
    How do you engage teachers and teacher unions in combating violence against girls in education?
    - What happens if a teacher has exploited, abused or sexually violated a female student?
    - What policies does the Teachers Union have to address this violation?
    - How can you work together with the Union on this important issue?

    Comment pouvez-vous impliquer les enseignants et les syndicats d'enseignants dans la lutte contre la violence faite aux filles en milieu scolaire?
    - Qu'advient-il si un enseignant a exploité, abusé sexuellement ou violé une étudiante?
    - De quelles politiques/outils les syndicats des enseignants disposent ils pour lutter contre cette violation?
    - Comment pouvez-vous travailler avec les syndicats sur cette importante question?

    • Alphonsine Bouya says:

      Des dispositifs légaux (textes de loi) existent dans certains pays, et définissent les sanctions contre les enseignants qui exploitent et abusent sexuellement les étudiantes. Dans les pays où ces dispositifs existent, il conviendrait de les diffuser, de les faire connaître (nul n'est sensé ignorer la loi) en commençant par les introduire dans les curricula de formation des enseignants. Là où de tels dispositifs n'existent pas encore, il conviendrait de se mobiliser (de faire le plaidoyer) afin les pays en soient dotés. La diffusion des clauses de ces textes pourraient se faire , par exemple, à travers les bulletins d'information des syndicats des enseignants ou encore à travers les médias existant dans les pays.

      • complètement d'accord avec vous. mais au delà de cette diffusion, que pouvons attendre des syndicats eux mêmes, en tant que catégories professionnelle, dans la lutte contre la violence faite aux filles en milieu scolaire?

        • Alphonsine Bouya says:

          Les syndicats, il me semble, sont par définition les défenseurs des droits de leurs adhérents. Nous connaissons les grandes victoires syndicales aussi bien en Afrique (dans le passé surtout) que dans d'autres parties du monde. Nous connaissons la force de mobilisation des syndicats capables de paralyser un pays entier ou de bloquer totalement un système éducatif (syndicat des enseignants). Pour le sujet qui nous touche ici, la stratégie serait d'amener les syndicats à épouser la cause des filles scolarisées. Cela ne peut se faire que s'il y a au sein de ces syndicats des voix qui parlent pour elles et portent cette cause sur le devant de la scène. Et ça, ce sont les femmes qui peuvent le faire. En bref, il faut que les femmes enseignantes investissent les syndicats dans leurs pays respectifs.

    • Teachers and Teachers Unions are crucial in combating violence against girls in education. Education International for example has an excellent general code of conduct for teachers which clearly commits members to help preventing and addressing violence in educational settings. At country level, teacher code of conducts provide locally adapted guidelines for members of unions and teachers in general. However, in practice, we experience often that teachers protect other teachers who committed abuse and violence of girls and/or aim to influence parents of victims to ensure that cases are not being brought to justice. In West Africa we have offered teachers' unions to work together on training for members on the topic and hope that this project advances. I believe that it is essential that Unions discuss inside their organizations much more about the issue so that they become the driving forces to eradicate violence. This will require that Unions address gender dynamics within their own rows too if they want to make progress.

      • c'est exact!
        In ActionAid , we think that teachers unions as a professional group should be part of any action or strategy aiming at stopping gender based violence at school. They are part of the solution and for that it is important to initiate the dialogue with them on the best way to do this as they can help in spreading the message inside the union as well as in the country nation wide.

    • Grace Harman says:

      In Sierra Leone the Teacher Union is mostly there to seek its own interst for better conditions of service. Even though as stated, they are crucial, I see working with parents and community teacher associations more crucial in our case, as they can bear pressure on school authorities in their localities more than a TU would. Most schools here are mission owned and school proprietors have a lot of clout over teacher – school relations.

      We have a new teacher code of conduct that abolishes teacher-student sexual relations. however, the code is short on penalties, referring to existing policies and laws dealing with sexual abuse for law enforcement. since there are no laws specifying age of sexual consent, cases brought to the police are usually settled out of court, usually through compensation to the family or forced marriage where a pregnacy occurs.

      If we want to work together with teacher unions we must start with them understanding that the role they play in ending GBV in school is crucial. we can also get them actively involved in decision making in policies such as codes of conduct, which in my country is led by the Ministry of Education.

    • yishaym says:

      Quoting the GEA site:

      "The recent report: ‘Together We Can End Violence Against Women and Girls: A Strategy’ by the UK Department of Children, Schools & Families (DCSF) aims to ensure schools take an important role developing relationship education, supporting victims and prevent violence against women and girls. From 2011, lessons in gender equality and preventing violence in relationships will be compulsory as part of the personal, social, health and economic (PSHE) education curriculum. Qualifying courses for student teachers will include content about teaching gender awareness and domestic violence."

      The report is available for download from: http://www.genderandeducation.com/issues/news-end...

  22. Tim says:

    Q2
    Can you provide an example of a strong policy framework or legislation which addresses gender-based violence in education?
    - What makes it a good policy?
    - What is lacking?
    - Is it enforceable?

    Pouvez-vous donner un exemple de cadre politique solide ou d’une législation qui traite de la violence fondée sur le sexe dans l'éducation?
    - Qu’est ce qui en fait une bonne politique?
    - Quelle est sa faiblesse?
    - Est-elle applicable?

    • Alphonsine Bouya says:

      Par exemple la législation relative aux grossesses des jeunes filles. Certains pays ont adopté une telle loi qui sanctionne toute personne (adulte notamment) qui serait l'auteur d'une grossesse d'étudiante (ou de mineure). Malheureusement cette loi en elle-même a encore quelques défaillances en ce sens que son application demeure difficile sinon quasiment impossible. Il est arrivé que dans quelques rares cas, des enseignants soient sanctionnés mais souvent la "sanction" consiste en la réaffectation du coupable dans une autre école. Par aileurs, cette loi ne s'applique pas aux coupables travaillant dans d'autres corps de métier . Là réside les limitations et la faiblesse de cette loi. Néanmoins, il faut se féliciter de ce qu'elle existe malgré tout même si ce n'est que dans de rares pays.

      • KinéFatim Diop says:

        C'est vrai qu'il faut féliciter que des lois existent pour punir les enseignants auteurs de violences (physiques, sexuelles, etc). Ces lois existent à ma connaissance au Kenya, en Tanzanie, au Sénégal. Mais, le problème comme vous le dites que les lois sont rarement appliquées. La preuve, dans des pays comme la Tanzanie, le Kenya au Sénégal, le nombre de filles qui quittent l'école à la suite d'une grossesse (par enseignant) est en constante augmentation. Au Kenya, pres de 10 000 filles quittent chaque année l'école à cause d'une grossesse précoce.
        C'est donc la preuve qu'il ne suffit pas des lois punitives mais qu'il faut veiller à leur stricte application. Car sinon on risque de créer des lois contre les VFF pour être "juridiquement correct". Parallélement, les enseignants auteurs de violences resteront impunis et les victimes au ban de la société.

  23. Tim says:

    Q1
    Why has progress on addressing gender-based violence in education been so slow?
    Pourquoi les progrès sont-ils aussi lents dans la lutte contre les violences basée sur le genre en milieu scolaire?

    • I think that the slow progres on addressing gender-based violence is the consequence of the prevailing social attitude and discrimination against girls in many countries. However, there is no excuse, gender-based violence must be addressed and eliminated at all levels, from the Ministry of Education to raising awareness at the household level; empowering gilrs to raise their voices and denounce cases of violence, with teachers and other students including boys, with the wider community, including local leaders, religious leaders, and with education policy makers to pass laws that end these practices . Gender-based violence is a violation of human rights particularly a violation of the right education.

    • In the introductory brief you mention "the complex relationships associated with gender identities and access to power and esteem this entails". This is a key issue for progress (or regression) as I think it is important to reflect for a moment on the double marginalisations of girls: as females in the category of children and as minors in the category of women. Gender and age accentuate the discrimination they face. Even worse, as long as we keep fragmenting girls' identities according to these categorisations we won't capture their daily life experiences of multiple oppressions. This is even more true when gender imbalances of power and paternalistic attitudes towards children conflate into gender-based violence. And education, which should provide spaces and opportunities to learn about and challenge these attitudes, becomes a 'victim', too.

      • Louise Wetheridge says:

        I think this point about the double marginalisation of school-age girls as a result of their age and sex is particularly salient. Recent studies in the Middle East region on teenage girls' experiences of violence in and outside school highlight that they are often at once considered old enough to marry, bear children and a heavy domestic burden, while being 'children' according to other responses to their behaviour by families, and according to the CRC definition of a child. It is a contradictory and fraught 'place' for girls and a time where raising their voices about their rights as children seems important.

    • Alphonsine Bouya says:

      Cette lenteur peut-être attribuée en partie au manque d'une stratégie claire de lutte contre les violences en milieu scolaire. Il y a un décalage déplorable au sein des systèmes éducatifs entre les niveaux décisionnels et les niveaux d'exécution qui sont les écoles. Les décisions et engagements pris par les autorités au niveau central des Ministères de l'Education tardent souvent à être traduits en plan d'action avec des activités claires et précises à mettre en pratique dans et par les niveaux d'exécution. Il s'ensuit un décalage, un vide qui demanderait à être comblé. Pour ce faire, il serait souhaitable de developper un cadre d'action stratégique de lutte contre les violences basées sur le genre en milieu scolaire à l'instar des plans d'action développés dans la moitié des années 1990 en faveur de la promotion de l'éducation des filles.

    • Madiana Samba says:

      this may be partly due to the fact that governments have not met to their international commitments in meeting the mellinium develepment goals and also the Education for all( EFA) goal on achieving gender parity by 2005. In most countries the budgetary allocations to the minsitry for women/gender,girls education have been faced with low allocations which shows that less financial support is geared toward addressing justice and access to services to protect girls. The issue of not tracking the violations and presenting country progress reports on the convenetion on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women is anotehr factor. also show that there is less commitment on the part of governments.Rather civil society groups and other women's orgnanisations are the ones that make effort to address this.There is always the excuse of lack of funds but i will say lack of will to ensure the protection fo women and girls.

      • Alphonesine and Mandiana — thank you for sharing your reflections,

        Is the issue of gender-based violence in education openly accepted in your country? when you say lack of 'will' what do you mean? Who's will and why is it lacking?

        • Alphonsine Bouya says:

          I don't want to talk on behalf of Mandiana, but I would just like to point to the following: there is a need to specify which cycle of education is concerned when we move to the "openlyness" aspect of the gender-based violence in education. I would say that gender-based violences in education understood as physical punishments happen more within the primary cycle (younger children) than in the secondary cycle of education. In contrary gender-violences linked to sexual abuses and exploitations are more present in the secondary cycle. So while more and more people now openly talk and condemn the later , sexual abuses and exploitations happening in primary cycle are still tabous! Less people including parents want to recognize that these abuses exist whenit comes to younger children.

          • awena says:

            i would like to support those people who take this discussion in a seriourcly matter! because the time tell us about it the time before discovering this issue, where the women violeted we were saw is just like nomal things to force girls out of school when they are prignancy but now like Tanzania mama Salma have a speacial campagn about the girls even if they are pegnancy still they have chance to continue with their studies at school. Big up to all!

    • Our experience of advocating at country and grassroots level as well as our research work demonstrate that not only gender bias, but also attitudes towards children and childhood in general. Deeply rooted attitudes about corporal punishment being an effective and necessary means of educating children impede progress in the area of eradication of the use of physical violence at school as parents very often (here in West Africa) support its use in educational settings. In regard to sexual abuse, low rates of female teachers and the perception that sexual favors are a form of compensation to make up for low salaries and difficult working conditions perpetuate gender based violence. My very personal experience is though that sexual abuse at schools is a highly political issue which is rarely taken up with the necessary commitment by education authorities in the region. This is because it involves Ministerial staff's own personal attitudes and history, teachers being an important voters group and finally the political influence of teachers' unions who rarely take a strong public position on sexual abuse at school.

    • Ishrat Khan Barsha says:

      Added to the other replies, sometime Hegemonic Masculunity is also responsible for slow progress, addressing such issue. If we contextualize it to our country, there are so many people who are very likely gender sensitive but the practices, values they have learnt through socialization process, is very often compelles them to behave unlikely. So therefore, there is differences between what we beleive and how we act! In our country violence against girls and women specially is a highlighted issue. Each govt regime focuses to work reducing violence, give words to establish the rights but it ends with lots of hoes and way forward equals slow progress! Can you tell me for that?

    • IRENE KADO says:

      I think the progress of addressing GBV in education is slow because culture plays a very big role, most people see GBV as normal and hence you find cases where individuals who revise the curriculum are some of the perpetrators, they feel no need to address such an urgent dangerous trend that needs to be stopped at an early age by incooperating it in the education system.

      The is a saying that goes the earlier the better, so intense lobbying from Human right activists and CSOs and even the government can speed up the progress.

      • Azuka Menkiti says:

        I quite agree with Irene that the progress is slow but then with the current efforts by different organisations we will get there very soon. It is amazing that everybody knows such violence exist and at the same time people shy away from engageing in discussions and actions that will address it. Actionaid Nigeria last year organised a Girls Educaion Summit on GBV focusing on School Based Gender based violence especially as it inhibits girls access to their right toi education. Discusions and interactions in this summit created great awareness on the level of GBV happening in Nigerian Schools. One key outcome of that summit was the partnership agreement between Actionaid Nigeria and all identified stakeholders including the Teachers union, Nigerian Police, State and national Parliament, Traditional Rulers , Professional unions such as Association of Female Lawyers , Association of medical doctors. We are currently reaching out to the Academic Staff Union of the Universities. The major target of thsi collaboration is to garner support from all stakeholders to join the campaign on breaking th esilence and encourage girls and women to speak out .

    • Angela Melchiorre says:

      Indeed. And let’s not forget that culture is not closed, static, or consensual. Sure there is a large amount of resistance to changes/challenges to patriarchy and gender hierarchies of power. It is true that GBV is grounded in cultural understandings of gender, sexuality, masculinity, as well as marriage, family, divorce, education, work, etc. However, seeing it as opposition between culture and rights does not do justice to current debates about its acceptability and the contestation that this violence receives from different social groups, both within local communities and from other societies. Sometimes I fear that by simplifying things in a dichotomy we miss the nuances. I think that recognising the dynamic, open and contested role of culture actually offers opportunities for a more accurate activism and ‘translation’ and 'contextaulisation' of universal ideals into local practices.

    • Contribution du Centre International pour l’Education des Filles et des Femmes en Afrique de l’Union Africaine (UA/CIEFFA), institution spécialisée de l’Union Africaine et un Centre de catégorie 2 de l’UNESCO, basé à Ouagadougou au Burkina Faso
      - Le milieu scolaire est à l’image de la société dans laquelle il se trouve. Or dans beaucoup de sociétés en Afrique, la violence basée sur le genre en général est banalisée, socialement et culturellement acceptée. Il se trouve que ce sont les hommes qui sont en position d’avantage dans presque tous les domaines de prise de décision. Par conséquent toute question qui ne constitue pas une préoccupation pour eux aura du plomb dans l’aile pour être prise en charge avec diligence. Il en est ainsi des violences basées sur le genre en milieu scolaire
      - La méconnaissance ou non intégration du concept genre à tous les niveaux (famille, communauté, l’école…)

    • KinéFatim DIOP says:

      Les progrés sont lents pour des raisons culturelles, économiques et juridiques. Le sujet de la violence est d'abord un sujet tabou.
      Dans beaucoup d'école en Afrique, la violence physique exercée par l'enseignant sur l'élève est naturelle. L'enseignement et les punitions, les coups, sont compatibles voire même indisociables. Il est donc difficile de sensibiliser le personnel scolaire et de changer les comportements. De plus, dans nos sociètés nous avons encore une image peu valorisante de la femme. Les filles/femmes sont considérées comme inférieures au garçon/ l'homme. Dans ce cas de figure, toute violence physique, morale, sexuelle exercée sur une fille est légitime.
      Sur plan juridique, les lois ne sont assez explicites.
      Enfin, sur le plan économique, pour les gouvernements africains, les acteurs dans l'éducation, la priorité est l'accès aux filles à l'éducation mais pas à leur protection, leur maintien et leur succès scolaire.

    • Monica Darer-Plan says:

      It seems that many of us are in agreement of the need to address cultural and social consructions which perpetuate and sanction violence against girls in schools and in other settings. It is no easy task to deconstruct these cultural and social elements-which are determinants for all actors. We must first seek to truly understand the roots of these cultural and social elements and find effective ways to change attitudes and practices of both those that perpetuate violence and of all those that are "victimized". These attitudes and practices are often mutually reinforcing. This type of structural change is long-term and complex-a type of mass therapy! More good models of practice in this regard are needed-models that demonstrate how harmful cultural and social practices, attitudes and discriminations (such as slavery, domestic violence, etc) have been successfully reduced/eliminated in certain places.

  24. Exacte, on est toute a fait d'accord avec vous, Madame. Veuillez bien partager votre experience ou bien les strategies avec nous tous.

    Ce dialogue commencera la semaine du 24 avril, mais c'est toujours bien de lancer des maintenant!

    Je voulais vous encourage de partager votre perspective dans la dialogue de cette semaine, sur la povretehttp://www.e4conference.org/e4e/w1

    Merci encore pour votre participation

  25. Joëlle says:

    Tous les “discussions papers” ne sont pas encore indiqués mais j’aimerai que l’on ne perde pas de vue que les violences en milieu scolaire se produisent aussi en temps de paix, dans des contextes de développement et pas uniquement dans les pays en (ou post) conflit. Désamorcer les violences dans ce cas nécessite des approches spécifiques.
    Par ailleurs, il est effectivement difficile de faire admettre cette situation à tel point que les gouvernements rechignent même à lancer une étude sur le sujet arguant de l’absence de ce phénomène dans le pays.

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